WHO classifies the FGM/M practice into four types; Type I, also called clitoris dectomy, Type II, also called excision, Type III, also called infibulations and Type IV which includes all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping or cauterization. Types II and III are widely practiced in Somaliland and these present severe health consequences that have been well documented in several medical reports.
Generally, the immediate health complications include shock, hemorrhage, infections and psychological consequences while the long term health risks consist of chronic pain, infections, fistula, keloids formation, primary infertility, birth complications, and danger to the new born.
In Somaliland, the following complications are common as reported by the several health service providers and gynecologists from centers such as Edna maternity hospital and NAFIS support centers:
De-infibulations at the time of marriage; The infibulations opening that had until then permitted the passage of urine and vaginal secretions is no longer able to permit intercourse, so de-infibulations should be performed at marriage and child birth. Repeated de-infibulations causes damage to the surrounding tissues.
Infertility; because of the constant stagnation of menstrual blood and other vaginal secretions that have accumulated in the vaginal cavity, the resulting pelvic inflammation may pay for essay obstruct the fallopian tubes and block the normal travel of the ovum along the tubes, preventing it from becoming fertilized by the male spermatozoa.
During Pregnancy It is not uncommon for an infibulated and pregnant woman to attend the antenatal clinic for follow up of the pregnancy or other related complaints and find that the opening of the infibulations will not admit the introduction of even one finger into the vagina for diagnostic and exploratory purposes. Such women will require a de-infibulations during pregnancy if complications are to be avoided at the time of delivery (Edna hospital report 2014)
 According the prevalence, perception and attitude research implemented by NAFIS Network in 2014
 Edna maternity hospital report in 2014